Prehľad mediálneho a reklamného práva v SR


Advertising in Slovakia is regulated primarily by the Advertising Act. Before embarking on an advertising campaign in Slovakia, it is important to consider the legal conditions and restrictions in Slovakia and to comply with them. This article is aimed to give a general overview of the legal environment in Advertising law in Slovakia.

The Advertising Act is the overarching law regulating advertising. When the advertisement is broadcast on television or radio, the Broadcasting Act is applied. Some general provisions of the Commercial Code are applied in cases of unfair commercial practices and unfair competition. Additional regulations are provided in the Slovak Advertising Standards Council’s Ethical Principles of Advertising Practice, which is followed in praxis.

The following are some general provisions which apply to all advertisements in Slovakia. Generally, advertising must comply with rules of competition and morality. Advertising must not be misleading or disguised. Advertising should not follow unfair commercial practices. Advertising must not
• abuse the consumer's trust, or lack of experience or knowledge;
• present products which are illegal to produce, sell, or use;
• contain anything that detracts from human dignity or offends national sentiments, or religious beliefs, or is discriminatory on the basis of sex, race or social origin;
• promote violence, vandalism, vulgarity;
• present the naked human body in a scandalous way;
• present products which harm the environment, or products that are detrimental to the life or health of humans, animals, or plants, without explicitly and clearly mentioning the potential for harm;
• threaten the physical health or mental health of the people;
• present the products as beneficial to the health of humans, animals, or plants, unless proven by experts;
• present food and nutritional supplements as if they were drugs;
• contain subliminal messages;
• contain personal data, or financial data without a person’s prior consent;
• refer to the statements of others without their prior consent;
• interfere with the rights of others without their consent;

With respect to minors, advertising must not abuse the trust of minors. In particular, it must not
• encourage minors to behavior that may jeopardize minors’ health, mental development and moral development;
• encourage minors to purchase unsuitable products or products whose sale is restricted to minors, or to purchase products by phone, fax or electronic computer network and abuse their inexperience and credulity; or
• include a direct challange to minors to encourage their parents or others to purchase any products.

"Advertising must meet the requirements for public speech, the principles of culture; language, spelling, grammar and pronunciation rules; and established technical terminology. Advertising must not be distributed by automatic call systems, fax, or e-mail without the prior consent of the person who is the recipient of advertising. Advertising must not distribute address if the recipient refuses delivery of advertising in advance."

Products and Services Banned From Advertising

Firearms, Weapons, and Ammunition

A general prohibition on advertising the weapons and ammunition is in Slovak republic. Only some information about the weapons, firearms and ammunitions is allowed. See more details in Firearms, Weapons, and Ammunition below.

Tobacco Products

The advertisement of cigarettes and other tobacco products is prohibited. See Tobacco Products below.

Regulations Related to Product and Service Advertising


The advertisement of any alcoholic beverages must not be directed at minors and must not encourage immoderate consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Advertisements for alcoholic beverages also must not:
• show minors;
• connect the usage of alcoholic beverages with driving a vehicle or with increased physical coordination;
• claim that the alcoholic beverages have medical or therapeutic qualities, act as stimulants or sedatives, or that they help to solve personal problems;
• create the impression that alcoholic consumption contributes to social and sexual success;
• encourage immoderate consumption of alcohol or present abstinence or moderation in negative light; or
• emphasize high alcoholic content as a sign of the quality of the drink.

Advertisements for wine may only be broadcast from 8:01pm until 5:59am.

Beer and Wine

Advertising of beer and wine is relatively free without significant restrictions. There are few restrictions about the content of the advertisements.


Advertisements for spirits can be broadcast only from 10:01pm until 5:59am. A bill has ben introduced to the legislature which would increase the restricted time for broadcasting the advertisement of spirits to 6am until 12am. This restriction does not apply when broadcasting on the Internet.

Firearms, Weapons and Ammunition

"There is a general prohibition on the advertisement of weapons and ammunition."

However, the advertisement of firearms, weapons, and ammunition is allowed only when:
• directed at members of the professional public involved in the production and trade of arms and ammunition;
• shown in weapons and ammunition exhibitions, including advertisements for exhibitions; or
• in professional literature and periodicals.


There are general statutes in the Commercial Code regarding the production, distribution, and advertising of food, but there are no specific restrictions on the advertisement of food. Applying the general rules, the advertising of food may not mislead the consumer about the quality of the food and the ingredients. This includes false labeling of foods or otherwise misleading the consumer, especially in terms of the properties of the food: the nature, identity, properties, composition, quantity, durability, origin or provenance, method of manufacture, or processing.

Advertisements may not attribute to the foodstuff effects or properties which the food does not have. Advertisements also may not attribute to food preventative, therapeutic, or healing properties; natural medicinal plants and dietary foods for special medical purposes which have these properties are excepted from this rule.

According to the Ethical Principles of Advertising Practice, food advertisements must truthfully present the characteristics of the food being advertised, including size, shape, appearance, packaging material, composition, durability, content, origin, method of production and the benefits of nutrition and health of the consumer, as well as a method of arranging the environment in which the Food Exhibition; Advertisements not mislead the consumer in any of the above properties of the food.

Nutrition and health information in food advertising should be scientifically justified.

Advertising of food and non-alcoholic beverages must not encourage excessive consumption of food or soft drink. Where food and soft drink advertising displays relate to food composition, this composition shall adequately meet generally accepted principles of balanced nutrition.

There are also regulations specifically guiding the labeling of food, separate from any regulations about advertising of food.


No specific restrictions

Legal Services

A lawyer, an association, or a company founded on the practice of law can advertise legal services to the public. Advertisements must appear factual, and contain only objective information on the technical focus of the law firm and the law firm composed.

Advertisements for legal services may not compare lawyers, associations, or companies based on the practice of law. Advertisements may not
• contravene the Bar Association,
• be false or misleading, or
• undermine the dignity of the legal profession.

If the attorney in connection with the provision of legal services to the public acts, or provide comments to the media, then he can not highlight his own person, his own work or business association of which he is a party or activities of the company based on the practice of law, which is a partner.

Advertisers of legal services can communicate with the public their activities in a particular case or disclose the identity of the client only with the client’s consent, or if it can be demonstrated that the information is already publicly available.

Medical Devices

No specific restrictions

Medical Services

The Slovak Medical Chamber provides an ethical code which stipulates that medical staff can not use indecent practices designed to increase the number of patients. It is forbidden to advertise through pharmaceutical firms, affiliate programs, or other persons or companies. Advertising private medical practices, medical facilities, and diagnostic and treatment methods are allowed. Advertising must be truthful, moderate, and highly informing may have signs of collusion. Text ads, and its disclosure may reduce the severity of occupational health professional.

Nonprofit Fundraising

No specific restrictions

Nutritional Supplements

Advertising of nutritional supplements may not give the impression that the advertised supplements can prevent, treat, or cure a human disease. Furthermore, advertising of nutritional supplements may not state or imply that a balanced and varied diet cannot provide appropriate quantities of nutrients.

Occult Services

No specific restrictions


The advertisement on pharmaceuticals in Slovakia is regulated by the Advertising Act. The advertisement of pharmaceuticals can be defined as any of the following:
• An advertisement designed for the public
• An advertisement designed for doctors or other persons with the ability to prescribe pharmaceuticals (hereinafter referred to as “health professionals”)
•A personal visit by a health professional
• The distribution of samples, or gifts such as presents, any special offer, or promise of any benefit or cash, given in exchange for prescribing any particular pharmaceutical product
• Sponsorship of any event or scientific conference

These types of pharmaceuticals are prohibited from advertising:
• Any pharmaceutical which is not registered in Slovakia
• Any pharmaceutical containing narcotics or psychotropic substances
• Any pharmaceutical for which a medical or veterinary prescription is needed
• Any pharmaceutical for no medical prescription needed but which is financed by public health insurance.

Vaccination campaigns authorized by the Ministry of Health may be advertised, only when directed at health professionals.”  It is forbidden to distribute free samples of pharmaceuticals directly to the public for the purposes of advertising and promotion.

All information presented in advertisements for medicinal products must match the summary of the product’s characteristics that is included with the actual product, and must encourage the rational use of medicinal properties of the product without exaggerating its characteristics.

Advertising to the Public

Any advertising of medicinal products to the public shall
• be prepared so that it is clear that information is an advertisement and that the product being advertised is clearly identified as a pharmaceutical;
• include the name of the product, the name of the drug (if it contains only one active ingredient), essential information about the correct use, an explicit and clear statement that the user should carefully read the included instructions on the proper use of the product, and
• the text, “Traditional herbal medicinal product for the indication of long-term use only certified” (in Slovak, “tradičná bylinková medicína určená na užívanie počas dlhšej doby”) if the product advertised is a traditional herbal medicine.

Advertising of medicinal products intended for the public shall not:
• give the impression that a medical examination or a medical procedure is unnecessary;
• offer a diagnosis or treatment method;
• suggest that the efficacy of the medicine is guaranteed, and is unaccompanied by adverse reactions, or that the efficacy of the medicine is better or the same as the other medications or other forms of treatment;
• suggest that persons in good health could be made healthier by taking the medicine;
• suggest that people in good health would be affected by not taking the medicine (this prohibition does not apply to vaccination campaigns) appeals solely or principally to children contains recommendations by scientists, health professionals or well-known persons, by their popularity could encourage the consumption of drugs;
• associate medications with food, cosmetic products, or with any other consumer goods;
• suggests that the safety or efficacy of the product is related to its natural origin, which can take the form of a description or a detailed representation of a case history, and which can lead to erroneous self-diagnosis;
• use excessively menacing or deceptive techniques to confirm that a disease has been cured; or
• use excessively menacing or false representations of changes of the human body caused by disease or injury, and illustrates the effect of these changes on the human body.

Advertising to Health Professionals

Advertising of medicinal products to health professionals (persons authorized to supply medicinal products) must contain basic information on the product (which must match the summary of the product’s characteristics that is included with the actual product), the instructions for the prescription and use of the product, the date of creation, or the expiration date. Any documentation to be transmitted as part of the promotion of the product must contain accurate and timely data that are verifiable and sufficiently complete to permit a medical professional to form an opinion on the therapeutic value of promoted drug.


The broadcast advertising (i.e., advertising on radio and television) of medicines containing narcotic, psychotropic and other addictive substances is banned. Broadcast advertising for medicines must be recognizable, honest, truthful and verifiable and meet the need to protect the individual from harm.

Advertising must contain a clear and unambiguous statement that the user should carefully reading the included instructions on the proper use of the product, and to consult a person authorized to prescribe or dispense medications for more information on the product’s use.

Television advertising for medicinal products must not
• be aimed at minors;
• compare medications with food or cosmetic products; or
• promote the effects of a medical product by pointing to the results obtained by particular persons, including recommendations by scientists, doctors, and celebrities whose popularity could encourage the use of the product.

Political Advertising

No current restrictions

Products Related to Sexuality

Advertisements cannot promote excessive sexuality by portraying sexual activity or intercourse, nudity, or partial nudity of the human body in an inappropriate way, and not without reason, or present the product as suitable for the removal of sexual inhibitions.


No current restrictions

Sexual Services

Advertisements cannot promote excessive sexuality by portraying sexual activity or intercourse, nudity, or partial nudity of the human body in an inappropriate way, and not without reason, or present the product as suitable for the removal of sexual inhibitions.

Tobacco Products

"Advertisements for cigarettes and other tobacco products are prohibited."

Sponsors of programs, services, or on demand audiovisual media services must not be legal entities or natural persons whose principal activity is the manufacturing or sale of cigarettes or other tobacco products.

The advertising of tobacco products is prohibited in the following forms:
• on all types of information media,
• through promotional giveaways to the public,
• the advertisement of products unrelated to smoking, such as promotional products (for example, T-shirts or bags),
• through the sponsorship of tobacco products,
• by placing the mark, emblem, name or other significant features of tobacco products, in addition to their presentation at point of sale of tobacco products.

The provisions above shall not apply to goods or services which use a similar trademark or the same or similar brand as a tobacco product, as long as:
• their sale or provision are not related to the sale of tobacco products,
• they were introduced on the market prior to March 1, 2006, and
• the appearance, form, or the mode of use of the trademark or brand is clearly distinguishable from their appearance, form or mode of use on tobacco products.

Advertising of tobacco products does not include the following:
• designation of specialist tobacco stores and household smokers with the word “tobacco,”
•identification of means of transport,
• the tobacco manufacturer's trademark,
• issuing leaflets, brochures and other publications designed exclusively for manufacturers and retailers of tobacco products and tobacco,
• information about a particular tobacco product designed for consumers, sold in tobacco shops, which must contain a warning about the harmful effects of smoking and must be positioned so that visitors to the store might easily see it, or
• distribution of tobacco products to trade negotiations related to tobacco.


No specific restrictions

Other Regulated Products

Infant Formula

Advertising infant formula is allowed only in scientific publications and publications aimed at caring for infants and young children, and can contain only scientifically proven and factually correct information. Advertisements must not suggest or lead one to the conclusion that infant formulas and subsequent other products are equivalent to or better than breast milk.

Advertising feeding preparations and other related products must include information about their proper preparation and proper use,.

Advertisements for baby products must contain clear and easy-to-read text indicating that the product is not superior to breast milk and is to be used only on the advice of medical professionals, or other persons professionally engaged in the care of nursing. Advertisements for baby products must not contain images or data that may be used to idealize the ingestion of the product, but can also include graphical representations to identify the product or to illustrate the method of preparation or use.

Advertising by handing out samples of baby products, highlighting the discount, or by adding additional products or special offers is prohibited.

Regulations Related to Advertising Methodology

Advertising to Children

It is forbidden to advertise pharmaceuticals to children. In television advertising, advertisements which could endanger the physical, mental, or moral development of minors or impair their mental health and emotional state may not be broadcast from 6am to 10pm. Broadcasters must ensure that broadcast programs or other parts of the program do not include content that could impair the physical, mental, or moral development of minors—particularly those that involve pornography or gross, unjustified violence.

Celebrity Endorsements

No specific restrictions

Comparative Advertising

Comparative advertising is permitted if the following conditions are fulfilled:
• It must compare goods, property, or services that address the same needs or are intended for the same purpose.
• It objectively compares one or more essential, relevant, verifiable, and representative characteristics of these goods or services, which may include the price of goods with the same name (designation) of origin.
• It does not harm the good name of and does not denigrate other trademarks, trade names, or other distinctive characteristics of the goods, services, or activities of a competitor.
• It does not provide an unfair advantage resulting from the fame of a trademark, trade name, or other distinctive characteristics of the goods, services, or activities of a competitor.
• It does not attempt to pass off the goods or services as imitations or replicas of goods or services bearing a protected trademark or trade name.
• It does not lead to confusion between trademarks, trade names, other distinguishing characteristics of the subject of the advertisement and that of a competitor.
• It must not be misleading.
• It must not violate laws regarding unfair commercial practice.

Comparative advertising that does not meet these conditions is prohibited.


No specific restrictions

Deceptive and Misleading Advertising

Deceptive and misleading advertising is forbidden in Slovakia. According to the Slovak Commercial Code, misleading advertising is defined as advertising that, in any manner, including its presentation, misleads or may mislead its intended audience and which, by its misleading character, may damaging a competitor by affect the intended audience’s economic behavior.

The Commercial Code provides that, in order to determine that an advertisement is misleading, one must take into consideration all of its elements, with special consideration for
• deception regarding the identity, nature, and composition of the product,
• the origin of the product,
• the quantitiy and the availability of the product,
• the means and date of fabrication, and
• other characteristics of the product, including anticipated results of use or test data, and the affect its use has on the environment.

Other elements of an advertisement that should be considered include:
• the price or its method of calculation, and the conditions under which goods are distributed or services are provided; and
• Information that can cause confusion with respect to a competitior’s product, services, intellectual property, awards, or activities.

Disguised Ads

Advertisements must be labeled clearly so as not to be mistaken for an editorial.

False Advertising

See Deceptive and Misleading Advertising above.

Free Gifts/Samples

No specific restrictions

Length of Commercial


The total duration of advertisements may not exceed twelve minutes per hour of broadcasting for television broadcasts. The length of advertisement between 7:00pm and 10:00pm cannot exceed eight minutes per hour. This restriction does not apply to infomercial (teleshopping) channels which have a specific license.


The total duration of advertising and infomercials (teleshopping) allowed on broadcast radio must not exceed three percent of the daily transmission time.

Limits to Free Speech

No specific restrictions

Rights of Privacy

General Civil Code restrictions are applicable. Any recordings or lieness of a person may not be broadcast in audio or visual form without that person’s express consent. Documents of a personal nature or characteristics of a person’s private life may not be used without that person’s consent. An exception to such use is applicable only when it is used for film, radio or television news and this use may not be contrary to a person’s legitimate interests.

Product Demonstrations

No specific restrictions

Regional Public and/or Community Standards

No specific restrictions


No specific restrictions

Sex in Advertising

Sexual language or images may not be used in advertising aimed at children, and pornography is not allowed in any advertisement. The general rule is that the advertisement should not breach generally accepted ethical and moral norms.


Sponsorship is defined as a broadcast program  or video-on-demand which promotes the name or trade name, trademark, reputation, products, or activities of a legal entity or natural person who gave a performance; it is considered irrelevant to the direct or indirect financing of the program.

If a program or series of programs is wholly or partially sponsored, the broadcaster or provider of audiovisual media services must clearly identify the sponsor at the beginning and end of the program. The program cannot directly support the sale, purchase, or rental of goods or services of the sponsor or a third party; in particular, it cannot make special promotional references to those goods or services during those programs.

Sponsorship of news programs and current affairs programs is prohibited, except in the case of programs that contain only information about weather, traffic, or sports.

Sponsorship for additional broadcasting of television program services is prohibited.

Subliminal Advertising

Subliminal advertising is restricted. Any advertisement that manipulates sensory perception, or affects the audience’s memory, without their knowledge is restricted.

Sweepstakes Offers

No specific restrictions


No specific restrictions exist. However, if the testimonials shown are not based on real opinion of the persons shown, the advertisement may qualify as misleading.

Tie-In Offers

No specific restrictions

Use of a Public Person´s Image or Name

Use of a public person’s image or name is permitted only with that person’s previous consent. Without his or her consent, such use is considered a violation of the right of privacy.

Use of Children in Advertising

Particular attention regarding nudity or other conditions of action is required for advertising in which a minor works or in which a minor appears as a model. Performances and other manners of using children in advertisements must not exploit the natural feelings adults toward children.

Use of Foreign Language in Advertising

When is foreign language used in an advertisement, a Slovak translation must also be provided.

Use of Models as Doctors, Nurses, Lawyers or other Professionals

An ad that uses a model representing a professional to recommend a product qualifies as misleading.

Violence in Advertising

Broadcasting and retransmission laws forbid the use of violence in advertising.

Regulations Related to Media Channels

Billboard Advertising

A regulation in Statute No.: 135/1961 Coll. restricts  the placement of billboard advertising. Advertising, information, and communication billboards on roads through villages and on local roads must meet the requirements of safety and traffic flow. Banners, promotional materials, information and communication equipment, and other devices that are not intended for the management of roads or traffic management, or the operation of transportation, are prohibited from intersections.

Digital Media Advertising

No specific restrictions

Direct Mail Advertising

" In Slovakia, the distribution of junk mail is prohibited by Law."

147/2001 Coll. which, as amended, states that an ad may not be “spread automatically [via a] call system telephone, fax [or] e-mail without prior consent of the user receiving the ads.” If an addressee rejects the delivery of an advertisement, the advertiser must comply. For example, if a leaflet is placed in a mailbox where there is a posted notice stating that the addressee does not wish to receive promotional material, this is considered a violation of the advertising law (if it can proven who dropped the leaflet in the mailbox).

Email Advertising

The same restrictions apply as for direct mail advertising. Additionally, Law. 147/2001 Coll., as amended, states that the service provider must deliver information regarding commercial communications by electronic mail, if the service recipient requests such information in advance.

Newspaper and Periodical Advertising

No specific restrictions

Social Media Advertising

No specific restrictions

Radio Advertising, Telemarketing, and Television Advertising

For the purposes of this section, commercial communication media is defined as: sound, visual, or audio-visual information that directly or indirectly promotes the products, services, or reputation of a natural person or legal entity pursuing an economic activity and
• is provided as part of the accompanying program for payment or for similar consideration or for self-promotional purposes or
• is a service program designed specifically for advertising, teleshopping, or self-promotion.

Media commercial communication shall be clearly distinguishable from other components of programs or on-demand audiovisual media services.

Subliminal commercial communication media is prohibited. Commercial communication must not
• violate freedom and equality, or the dignity and rights of people;
• include or support discrimination based on sex, race, color, age, language, sexual orientation, disability, religion or belief, national or social origin, or nationality or ethnic group;
• encourage behavior that harms or endangers the public health or safety;
• encourage behavior that is grossly detrimental to the environment.

The broadcaster and provider of audiovisual media services on demand is required to ensure that commercial communications media could cause physical or moral detriment to minors (see Advertising to Children above).

Television advertising and teleshopping shall be recognizable and clearly separated from other parts of the program so that they are not interchangeable with other parts of the program. In the broadcast of a radio program, sound shall be used to separate the advertisement from other programs and in a television program, visual techniques shall be used to separate the advertisement from other programs. In a television program,  advertising and teleshopping broadcast blocks should be visually separated from other parts of the program. Isolated advertising and teleshopping spots are allowed to be broadcast during sporting events, and allowed during other types of programming only in exceptional circumstances. Television advertising and teleshopping blocks must be of the same volume as the program immediately preceding and following it. Moderators and editors of news and current affairs programs can not appear in advertising or teleshopping programs, either in the image or the sound.

Regulatory Agencies

Slovenská obchodná inšpekcia
Slovak Trade Inspection

Prievozská 32
827 99 Bratislava 215
Tel: [421] (2) 58272 172; (2) 58272 104
Fax: [421] (2) 58272 170

The Slovak Trade Inspection is the authority on internal market surveillance. It is independent in its inspection and decision-making activities. The Slovak Trade Inspection derives its authority from the Act No. 128/2002 Coll. on State Control of Internal Market in the Consumer Protection Issues.

Rada pre vysielanie a retransmisiu
Slovak Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission

Dobrovičova 8
810 00  Bratislava
Tel [421] (2) 20906500
Fax: [421] (2) 2906535

The Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission is the administrative body that carrys out state regulation of radio and television broadcasting, retransmission, and the provision of audiovisual media services on demand. The mission of the Council is to promote the interests of the public about the right to information, freedom of expression, and access to cultural values and education.

Key Laws and Regulations

Zákon o reklame č.: 147/2001 Z.z.
Rada pre vysielanie a retransmisiu
Advertising Act No.: 147/2001 Coll.
Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission

The Advertising Act contains general rules governing advertising law. The act regulates the general requirements for advertising and its distribution, including penalties for breaches of the law and the establishment of supervisory authorities.

Zákon o ochrane spotrebiteľa
Slovenská obchodná inšpekcia
Act on Consumer Protection
Slovak Trade Inspection

Stipulates general rules about the protection of consumers, the rights of consumers, sanctions, and penalties for violating consumer rights.

Zákon o vysielaní a retransmisií č. 308/2000 Z.z.
Rada pre vysielanie a retransmisiu
Broadcating Act No. 308/2000 Coll.
Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission

Stipulates general rules for state administration in the field of radio and television broadcasting. Specifically, the Broadcasting Act regulates the issue of broadcast licenses, sets forth the rights and obligations of broadcasters, and provides for sanctions and penalties for breaches of the law.

Zákon o elektronických komunikáciach č. 351/2011 Z.z.
Rada pre vysielanie a retransmisiu
Act on Electronic Communications No. 351/2011 Coll.
Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission

Stipulates the rules for communiation via electronic means.

Obchodný zákonník
Commercial Code

Stipulates general rules for fair competition which must be followed in advertising.

Advertising Pre-Clearance Agencies

Rada pre reklamu
Slovak Advertising Standards Council

Cukrová 14
813 39 Bratislava
Tel: [421] (2) 59324 249
Fax: [421] (2) 59324 249

The Slovak Advertising Standards Council was established in March 1995, out of the need for a standard functioning body for ethical self-regulation, as is common in developed countries. The Council defines its main goal as the codification and maintenance of a formal set of Ethical Principles of Advertising Practice in Slovakia, the application of these principles in society, and ongoing monitoring of ethics in advertising.


There is a recent proposal to amend the Broadcasting Act in the Parliament. The amendment of the Broadcasting Act would change the article stipulating that television advertising and teleshopping for alcoholic beverages other than beer and wine may not be aired from 6am to 12am. The reason for the change is the negative influence on teenagers and minors of advertisements for alcoholic beverages.

By: Daniela Ježová, attorney at law in Slovakia